SDLC Interview Questions with Answers :
In my previous article i have explained Sql interview questions for different companies. Today i will try to give you brief idea about SDLC Interview Questions which will be asked in Interview.SDLC is very integral part of software development.In every interview whether it is a development interview or testing interview SDLC Interview Questions will be asked. I would like to give you the important SDLC Interview questions with Answers in this article. The article is very useful to developers as well as testers who want to face the interview.
SDLC stands for Software Development Life cycle.Every software go through the Software Development Life Cycle. Each and every Software uses the SDLC model. The Software development life cycle has different phases. So In most of the interview the SDLC Interview Questions will be asked.This article will help you to understand different SDLC Interview Questions with its answers.
Question 1 : What is SDLC ? (100 % asked SDLC Interview Questions )
SDLC simply stands for Software Development Life Cycle. Software Development Life Cycle is nothing but the stepwise process to develop the software using different phases. It is a process of creating systems, and methodologies and models that people use to develop software. The SDLC consists of many kinds of software development methodologies.
Software Development Life Cycle is a series of steps, or phases, that provide a model for the development and lifecycle management of an application or piece of software.
In other words the SDLC is nothing but the step by step process to build a software using different phases like Analysis,Desing,Development,testing e.t.c.
Question 2 : Which are different Phases of Software Development Life Cycle ?
Software Developement Life Cycle (SDLC) is used to develop software in systematic manner. It uses different phases to develop software in step by step manner :
- Requirement Gathering
Question 3 : What is STLC ? (100 % asked SDLC Interview Questions for tester )
The process of testing software in a well planned and systematic way is known as software testing life cycle(STLC).
Different organizations have different phases in STLC however generic Software Test Life Cycle (STLC) consists of the following phases.
i) Test Planning
ii) Test Design
iii) Test Execution
iv) Evaluating the Exit criteria
v) Test Closure
Question 4 : What are different SDLC models ? (100 % Asked SDLC Interview Questions )
There are following different SDLC models :
Some Traditional Models :
- Waterfall Model
- Iterative Model
- Spiral Model
- Prototype Model
- Incremental Model
Some new SDLC Models :
- Agile Model
- Rapid Application Development Model (RAD)
- V model
- Big Bang Model
- Capability Maturity Model
Question 5 : Which SDLC model is used in your project? how?(100 % Asked SDLC Interview Questions )
We are using the Agile project module in our project. As we are not following any kind of phases in the project. We are taking requirements from the client at first step then we will sit together and in daily stand up meetings we will decide to complete the modules different phases. If in between different requirement coming from the client which is on highest priority we need to take that request in between the phases of the project and need to make plan accordingly.
So in our project we are using the Agile model for flexibility.
Question 6 : What will be the first step of project after acceptance of proposal ?
- The First step of project is requirement gathering for any project.
- The project requirements are analyzed in terms of input data and desired output, processing required to transform input into output, cost-benefit analysis, and schedule of the project.
- It also includes gathering, analyzing, validating, and specifying requirements.
- Business Analyst is responsible for gathering the requirements of project.
- This is very vital step of project management as all success of project is dependent on this.
Question 7 : What is mean by Feasibility analysis ? Who will do this?(100 % asked SDLC Interview Questions )
The Feasibility analysis is also important stage of SDLC. It is a measure to assess how practical and beneficial the software project development will be for an organization.The software analyzer conducts a thorough study to understand economic, technical and operational feasibility of the project. The Business analyst is responsible to communicate with the client regarding the feasibility of the software product.
To do feasibility analysis we require the technical expert,functional expert team. The function expert person mainly the Business Analyst will explain about the client requirement and the technical person is responsible to convert that functional requirement to technical product.Technical person mostly tech leads and tech architects are responsible to give the technical inputs to Business analyst and business analyst will communicate with the client regarding the same.
Question 8 :What is the difference between SDLC and STLC?
Software Development Life Cycle involves the complete Verification and Validation of a Process or a Project.
Whereas Software Testing Life Cycle involves only Validation.
Software Development Life Cycle involves business requirement specifications, Analysis, Design,Software requirement specifications, Development Process(Coding and Application development),
Testing Process(Preparation of Test Plan,Preparation of Test cases,Testing,Bug reporting,Test Logs & Test Reports), Release and Maintenance .
Whereas Software Testing Life Cycle involves Preparation of Test Plan, Preparation of Test cases,Test execution ,Bug reporting & Tracking, Re & Regression Testing and Test Closure.
STLC is a Part of SDLC.
Question 9 : What is waterfall model? Explain its Advantages and Disadvantages.(100 % asked SDLC Interview Questions )
Waterfall Model is one of the most widely used Software Development Process.It is also called as “Linear Sequential model”.
It is widely used in the commercial development projects. In this model, we move to next phase(step) after getting input from previous phase, like in a waterfall, water flows down to from the upper steps.
Advantages Of waterfall model :
1.Simple and easy to use
2.Easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model- each phase has specific deliverables and a review process.
3.Phases are processed and completed one at a time.
4.Works well for smaller projects where requirements are very well understood.
Disadvantages of waterfall model :
1.No working software is produced until late during the life cycle
2.High amount of risk and uncertainty
3.Poor model for complex and object oriented projects.
4.Poor model for Long and ongoing projects
5.Poor Model where requirements are at a moderate to high risk of changing.
Question 10: What is difference Between CRS and SRS?
- The CRS is a brief document prepared by the business analyst and might contains many contradicting data, duplicates, missing information.
- The SRS is a base lined and final document that is well organized and clear in terms of understanding which is used as reference by the test engineers.
Question 11 : Explain Design phase of SDLC ?
1.The requirements is specified in the form of a document which is also known as requirement specification document.
2.It is then converted into a logical structure which needs to be implemented in a specific programming language.
3.The design phase is also helpful for specifying hardware & system requirements.
4.It also allows defining complete system architecture.
5.The output is designed to document that acts as an input for all the subsequent SDLC phases.
6.Dedicated designers or Software technical architects are responsible to complete the SDLC Design.
Question 12 : Explain What is SRS document?(100 % asked SDLC Interview Questions )
2.SRS or Software Requirement Specification is a document produced at the time of requirement gathering process.
3.It can be also seen as a process of refining requirements and documenting them.
4.SRS is a formal document that acts as a written agreement between the development team and the customer.
5.SRS acts as input to the design phase and includes functional, performance, software, hardware, and network requirements of the project.
6.Business Analysts are responsible to complete SRS documents with help of client as well as technical team.
Question 13: Explain V-Model in detail.
1.V- Model means Verification and Validation model and it is a modified version of the Waterfall method.
2.In V-Model developer and tester works parallel.
3.The V-Model demonstrates the relationships between each phase of the development life cycle and its associated phase of testing.
Question 14: Explain Advantages of V-Model?
There are following advantages of V-Model
o Multiple stages of Testing available so that Defects multiplication can be reduced.
o Can be used for any type of requirements
o Due to Multiple stages of Testing and Multiple teams involvement Quality can be improved.
o The V Model Supports wide range of development methodologies such as Structured and Object oriented systems development.
o The V Model supports tailoring.
Question 15: Explain coding phase in detail.
1.The design specified in the design document is implemented into executable programming language code.
2.The output of the coding phase is the source code for the software that acts as input to the testing and maintenance phase.
3.This is the longest phase of the software development life cycle.
4.Coder is responsible for development of software.
5.There are two types of software programmers first is front end developer which develops the program or software product from front side. The Back end developer is responsible to develop the database programs or adding business logic in database.
Question 16 : Explain Prototype model in detail.
The following are different Phases in prototype model:
1.Identify some requirements to begin with: Get a list of some major requirements which define the need for the new system including the main input output information.
2.Develop initial prototype: Develop a basic initial prototype which only has UI screens.
3.Review the prototype: End users and SME’s work and examine the prototype and provide feedback for improvements/enhancements.
Revise and enhance the prototype: Scope is changed based on feedback from end users and the prototype is enhanced and refined to accommodate user feedback.
Question 17: Explain testing phase in detail.Who is responsible to complete testing phase?
1.In testing phase, the code developed is tested against the design document to make sure that the product is actually solving the needs addressed and gathered during the requirements phase.
2.During this phase unit testing, integration testing, system testing, acceptance testing are done.
3.Software testers are responsible to do testing.
4.Developer needs to closely work with software tester to fix the bugs in the software.
Question 18 : Explain about Scrum methodology in Agile model.
There are different methodologies, which are a part of the agile model. The most famous one is scrum methodology. Like all the other agile computer programming, scrum is also an iterative and incremental methodology. This methodology is different than the other methodologies because, the idea of empirical process control was introduced in this process. As a matter of fact, scrum was introduced for software project management. However, it was eventually also used for software maintenance.
The best part of the scrum methodology is that it makes use of real world progress of a project, which is used for planning and scheduling releases. The entire computer software project is divided into small parts known as sprints. The duration of sprint can range from one week to three weeks. At the end of the duration of the sprint, the team members along with the stakeholders meet. This meeting helps in assessing the progress of the project and chalk out the further plan of action. This assessment helps in taking stalk of the current state of affairs and rework the line of work and complete the project on time and not just speculate or predict the further outcome.
Question 19 : What are different advantages of Prorotype model?
There are following advantages of prototype model :
1) Gains customer’s confidence as developers and customers are in sync with each other’s expectations continuously.
2) Ideal for online systems where high level of human computer interaction is involved.
3) Very flexible, as changes in requirements can be accommodated much more easily with every new review and refining.
4) Helps the developers and users both understand the system better.
5) Software built through prototyping needs minimal user training as users get trained using the prototypes on their own from the very beginning of the project.
6) Integration requirements are very well understood and deployment channels are decided at a very early stage.
Question 20: Explain deployment and maintainance phase of software in detail.
1.The Deployment phase is nothing but the product is delivered / deployed to the customer for their use after the successful testing.
2.The Maintenance phase includes implementation of changes that software might undergo over a period of time, or implementation of new requirements after the software is deployed at the customer location.
3.The maintenance phase also includes handling the residual errors that may exist in the software even after the testing phase.
4.Implementation and support engineers are responsible to complete both deployment as well as the maintenance of Software product.
Question 21: Explain RAD model in detail.
RAD (rapid application development) is a concept that products can be developed faster and of higher quality through:
- Requirements using workshops or focus groups
- Prototyping and early, reiterative user testing of designs
- The re-use of software components
- A rigidly paced schedule that defers design improvements to the next product version
- Less formality in reviews and other team communication.
Question 22: Explain Spiral model in depth.
1.The spiral model is similar to the incremental model, but incorporates risk analysis.
2.The spiral model has four phases: Planning, Risk Analysis, Engineering and Evaluation.
3.A software project repeatedly passes through these phases in iterations (called Spirals in this model). 4.The baseline spiral, starting in the planning phase, requirements are gathered and risk is assessed. Each subsequent spiral builds on the baseline spiral.
5.Requirements are gathered during the planning phase.
6.This model of development combines the features of the prototyping model and the waterfall model. The spiral model is intended for large, expensive, and complicated projects.
Question 23 : Explain HLD and LLD in depth.
HLD (High Level Design) :
High Level Design gives the overall System Design in terms of Functional Architecture and Database design. It designs the over all architecture of the entire system from main module to all sub module.
LLD (Low Level Design also called as Detailed Design ) :
Low Level Design the view of the application developed during the high level design is broken down into modules and programs. Logic design is done for every program and then documented as program specifications. For every program, a unit test plan is created.
Question 24 : What are the Maturity levels in CMM?Explain in steps.
1.Capability Maturity Model is a benchmark for analyzing the maturity of an organization’s software development process.
2.It is a technique which is used to refine a company’s software development process.
3.It is using to assess any company against a scale of five different levels of levels based on their Key Process Areas. ]
4.It tells about the maturity of the company based on the project the company is dealing with and the clients.
5.Initial, Managed, Defined, Quantitatively Managed and Optimizing are five levels which determine CMM levels of any company.
Question 25 : Explain incremental model with is phases.
1.Phases of incremental model are same as waterfall i.e. Requirements, design, implementation, testing, maintenance.
2.However, instead of following the waterfall once and for all linearly, incremental model takes a different approach.
3.In this phases are repeated incrementally as business value is delivered incrementally as well.
4.For every single phase and increment a waterfall model is followed.
5.The waterfall model is then put in a cycle of increments along with verification of requirements, and design.
Question 26 : What is mean by Software Release Process?
1.PM (Project Manager) forms Release Team, Release team consists of a few developers, testers,project management executive, and system administrator
2.Release Team goes to customer place and deploys software.
3.Release Team provides some training to the customer site people.
Question 27 : Explain Big Bang Model in Detail.
The Big Bang model follows no specific process, and very little time is spent on planning. Even the customer is not sure about what exactly they want and the requirements are implemented on the fly without much analysis. This is typically used for small projects and not recommended for large or complex projects, as it’s a high-risk model; if the requirements are misunderstood in the beginning, you could get to the end and realize the project may have to be started all over again.
Question 28 : Explain in which situation Spiral model is best fit?
Following are some Bullet-points where Spiral model is best fit :
a) Prototypes are expected/needed.
b) Large and high budget projects
c) When risk assessment is very critical
d) Requirements are not very clearly defined.
e) Requirements are vague and even complex
f) The organization does not have much experience with the domain.
g) Ample time is available.
Question 29 : Which are different Stages of Team development in SDLC?
The 4 stages of team building are:
1.Forming: Team members are told what is expected out of them and where do they fit in the team. The team is guided using operating guidelines, and communication within.
2.Storming: During this phase team members show some resistance and frustrations trying to work together. There would be jealousies and ego clashes and the team manager must act as a referee or a coach.
3.Norming: In this phase the team has learnt to function as a whole. Team members find their consistent ways of working and hold their ideas back to avoid problems and conflicts. The team manager guides the team to not hold themselves back by increasing responsibilities and pressures.
4.Performing: In this phase the team has learnt to perform their role as whole, have and resolve conflicts, take risks, make adjustments or compromises, and perform actively to face various challenges.
These are some most important SDLC Interview Questions with answers. Hope you like this article on SDLC Interview Questions.If you like the article of SDLC Interview Questions kindly comment in to comment section.